Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Medicine in Ancient Greece

Medicine in Ancient Greece

The advances made in medical knowledge during the time of ancient Greece were quite remarkable. The knowledge was recorded in paintings and in writings. Many of the original writings were later destroyed but second-hand accounts survived.

Figure 1. Physician treating patient, 480–470 BC


The term “physician” was introduced, meaning “healer”, and physician is a  term that remains in use today. The term “doctor” is a later term, Roman and meaning “teacher” ( docere = to teach).

The term “surgeon” comes from old French “serurgien”, originally from the Latin “chirurgia”. This is why the usual form of the UK medical degree is MB ChB, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery.

There is also an ancient Greek origin of surgery, “kheirourgia” meaning “handiwork”.


Apollo was the god of medicine, plague and knowledge, among other things. Apollo was therefore in control of illness and healing.

Homer describes in the Iliad (about 700 BC) that during the Trojan War, plague fell upon the Achaean soldiers. The plague was considered to be the result of  Agamemnon taking Chryseis, the daughter of Chryses, and refusing to release her, despite the offer of a ransom. 

Figure 2. Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for the release of his daughter

As the plague, some form of epidemic, was considered to be under the control of Apollo, the end of the plague would also be under the control of Apollo. The "treatment" would therefore be to plead to Apollo, with prayer and human sacrifice.

However in this story Agamemnon released Chryseis and so the plague came to an end without the need for sacrifice. But the general principle remained that health and sickness, life and death were under the control of the the gods. The treatment therefore had to be prayer and sacrifice. 

In fact both are still used to this day, 2500 years later. Sacrifice has gone out of fashion in our society but prayer is still used extensively, in an attempt to save lives as well as souls. Prayer can in this respect be dangerous as some people (fortunately vey few) will use prayer to the exclusion of current medical practice. We only know about it when it does not work, but perhaps sometimes it does work. However, natural healing is impossible to distinguish from supernatural intervention.

In ancient Greece the new medical philosophers were sceptical of supernatural intervention, taking the pragmatic view that if gods controlled illness, then there was no place for physicians.

The discovery of ignorance

It was the rejection of divine intervention in all things that led to arguably the greatest discovery by humankind: the discovery of ignorance. It led to scientific development, seeking after knowledge.

The important contribution of the ancient Greeks was to try to understand health and illness, whereas other ancient cultures tried to develop medicines from herbs without scientific understanding.

The medical/scientific development of the era of ancient Greece came to an end with the appearance of the Roman empire, especially after its Christianisation. European civilisation had to wait until the late 18th century for ignorance to be rediscovered, in what we know as the Age of Enlightenment. It is important to note that this was the second Age of Enlightenment, the first having been in ancient Greece.

Cnidus (Knidos)

Figure 3. Cnidus
Ancient Greece had its physicians and the fist medical school was established in 700 BC, in Cnidus (Knidos). It was situated on the south west coast Asia Minor, and its remains can be seen today.

Figure 4. Location of Cnidus
The illnesses dealt with at the time were diseases, dog bites and war injuries. The treatments offered were restricted to herbs, bandages and wine, a modest contribution from prayer.

The treatment of war injuries was of great importance as it gave the opportunity to study the inside of the body, its structures and organs, leading to the development of anatomy.


Figure 5. Temple of Asclepius
Pergamon (Pergamum) was the next important centre of medical development, specifically the Temple of Asclepius (Asklepios). This is located on the northerly part of the west coast of present-day Turkey. The innovation at the Temple of Asclepius was "taking the waters".
Figure 6. Location of Pergamon

Asclepius was “the healing god”, the god of medicine, healing, rejuvenation, and physicians. He was depicted with a rod around which a snake was coiled. The Rod of Asclepius became the symbol of medicine, still in use today.
Figure 7. Asclepius
The Rod of Asclepius is often, but is not to be confused with the Caduceus, the Symbol of Hermes, in which two snakes are coiled around a rod.

Figure 8. Rod of Asclepius

Figure 9. Hygieia
Asclepius and Epione had five children. Their daughter Hygieia became the goddess of good health, cleanliness, and sanitation. Her name lives on as “hygiene” in our present day. A statue of Hygieia by Alexander Handys stands outside the College of Physicians in Queen Street, Edinburgh.
Figure 10. Hygieia, in Edinburgh
The Bowl of Hygieia remains in use today as a symbol of the pharmacy profession, and there are several forms of it in use in Europe.

Figures 11,12 The Bowl of Hygieia


Asclepius and Epione had a second daughter who continued the family tradition. She was Panacea, the goddess of universal health. We use the term “panacea” today as meaning a medicine that treats everything, a cure-all. It is usually an illusion but a sign of medical optimism, or possibly now the sign of a charlatan.

Figure 13. Panacea tending the sick


Hippocrates (460–370 BC) is regarded as the father of modern medicine. His home was on the island of Kos and a later mosaic illustrates a visit by Asclepius.

Figure 14.  Asclepius visits Hippocrates on Kos
Hippocrates was revolutionary in that he defined a new way of thinking. He rejected the divine cause of disease, replacing it with what we would recognise today as biological, chemical, and physical causes of disease.

He was aware of the importance of the sun in respect of human health. He recommended living on the south side of the hill (in the northern hemisphere). He established a solarium on the island of Kos (Cos).

Hippocrates defined the “humoral” cause of disease, the humors (Latin for “body fluids”) being blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Hippocrates emphasised that good health was the result of the balance of humors within the body. For example the body could be too hot or too cold, too wet or too dry. It was the balance between the extremes that was of the greatest importance.

In this respect his ideas predated by more than two millennia those of Claude Bernard, who in 1854 published his concept of the “milieu intérieur”. This is the metabolic control of the functioning of the body, for example how body temperature remains constant. Also body weight and blood levels of calcium, sodium, potassium, the pH of the blood and many others. 

It is all a matter of balance, as defined by Hippocrates, what is now called homeostasis, a term introduced in 1926 by Walter Bradford Cannon, professor of physiology at Harvard medical school.

As well as the interior environment of the body, Hippocrates also drew attention to the environment in which we live. He was concerned about bad water and bad air. The direction of the wind was also important. 

The miasma theory

This led to a new concept, the miasma theory (μίασμα in ancient Greek), which persisted to 1854. Miasma means bad air, an unhealthy smell or vapour, that will cause disease. There was no useful intervention, just hoping for a change of wind. Fortunately the population densities were low at that time.

But population density was not low in London 1854 when yet another epidemic of cholera occurred. The air was bad and so miasma was assumed to be responsible. It was the physician John Snow who, through careful mapping of the outbreak, realised that the disease came from an individual water pump in Broad Street, Soho. Removal of the handle of the pump brought an end to the epidemic of cholera, and also an end to the miasma theory. The microbiological explanation of much disease then followed.

The Hippocratic Oath

Figure 15. Hippocrates
Hippocrates produced a Hippocratic Corpus, a written body of knowledge. In addition he produced the Hippocratic Oath, a code of conduct for physicians:

“I swear by Apollo The Healer, by Asclepius, by Hygieia, by Panacea, and by all the Gods and Goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath and this indenture ….
“To hold my teacher in this art equal to my own parents; to make him partner in my livelihood; when he is in need of money to share mine with him; to consider his family as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they want to learn it, without fee or indenture; to impart precept, oral instruction, and all other instruction to my own sons, the sons of my teacher, and to indentured pupils who have taken the physician’s oath, but to nobody else.
“I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with a view to injury and wrong-doing. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein.
“Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm, especially from abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free. And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of my profession, as well as outside my profession in my intercourse with men, if it be what should not be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding such things to be holy secrets.
“Now if I carry out this oath, and break it not, may I gain for ever reputation among all men for my life and for my art; but if I transgress it and forswear myself, may the opposite befall me.”

 The Hippocratic Oath has been modified many times and most doctors on graduation do not take it these days. However they are aware of its basic ideals.

Figure 16. The Hippocratic Oath
There are two aspects that are controversial today. First is the prohibition of active termination of pregnancy. Second, there is prohibition of assisted dying.


More interesting is the prohibition on “using the knife” and transferring care to “craftsmen” who would the knife when necessary. This became the standard model of care, that surgeons (craftsmen, “kheirourgia” = handicraft) were not required to have medical qualification. In the UK their craft was ultimately controlled by the Royal College of Surgeons (1800) and a medical degree was enforced by the Medicines Act of 1858. There is still a rather quaint and uniquely UK tradition of referring to surgeons (members of the Royal College of Surgeons) as “Mr” rather than the more appropriate “Dr”.

At the time of Hippocrates the main function of the physician in respect of disease was the assessment of prognosis, the outlook of the disease. Was it likely to be fatal? Or was it expected to be recoverable? Little or usually nothing could be done to alter the prognosis, or perhaps recoverable could be changed to fatal!

There were some descriptions of draining abdominal abscesses and removal of foreign material. The procedures would have been undertaken by the “craftsmen”, but under the observation of the physicians, who would have learned much from such interventions.


Aristotle continued the Hippocratic tradition of observation and empiricism, also maintaining concept of the biological causation of disease.

Figure 17. Aristotle

Aristotle stated that:

"There are three factors in the practice of medicine: the disease, the patient and the physician.” 

This has been very relevant in present-day medical practice. An important book “The Doctor, the Patient and the Illness” by Michael Balint (1896–1970) was first published in 1957. 

And also that:

“The physician is the servant of science, and the patient must do what he can to fight the disease with the assistance of the physician".

This follows, emphasising the complex dynamics of the medical consultation and intervention. Medicine in ancient Greece emphasised the importance of medical science, an understanding of disease (pathology), the person who is ill, and the physician who must be knowledgable and honest in his / her treatment of the patient. This is the empiricism emphasised by Aristotle.


Theophrastus (371–287 BC) was based in Lesbos.

Figure 18. Theophrastus
Theophrastus wrote “A History of Plants”. In this he identified the role of sex in reproduction, applying this also to human reproduction, a major step in understanding. 

The prevailing view before Theophrastus and for more than 2000 years afterwards was that the father supplied the seed from which the offspring grew, and that the mother was merely the host, the receptacle, both the pre-natal and the post-natal nurse. The father was thus the natural “owner” of the child, and this attitude continued into the 20th century. It was not until the development of microscopy in the 19th century that the female “seed”, the ovum, was clearly identified and the process of human fertilisation understood.

Theophrastus was ahead of his time, but his wisdom, like so much, was lost with the rise of the Roman Empire.


Herophilus of Chalcedon (335–280 BC) is described as the first anatomist. 

Figure 19. Herophilus

He identified the distinction between arteries and veins. He defined the brain as being the seat of intelligence. He also made the important discovery that movement is controlled by the nervous system.


Erastistartus of Ceos (304–250 BC) made further anatomical advances. He mapped the arteries and veins. He identified the importance of the convolutions of the brain.

Much of the knowledge of Erastistratus was obtained by the rather barbaric vivisection of criminals.

Figure 20.  Erastistratus and the illness of Antiochus
He is also famous for diagnosing the cause of the illness of Antiochus, son of the King of Syria. Erastistratus identified the illness being the result of love for his young stepmother Stratonice. He persuaded the old king to give his young wife to his son, who then fully recovered.


Figure 21. Dioscorides
Pedonius Dioscorides (30–90 AD) was described as an army surgeon. He wrote a “Materia Medica”, a body of therapeutic knowledge. The term continued in use until into the 20th century, but it has now been replaced by the term “pharmacology”.


Aelius Galenus (129–210 AD) , otherwise known as Galen of Pergamon, was an important Greek physician in the Roman Empire.

Figure 22. Galen
Galen was also an anatomist and one important observation was that injury to one side of the brain results in paralysis of the opposite side of the body.

He also developed the concept of what is now called heteropathic or allopathic medicine. The term was “contraria contrariis”, meaning that the opposite is cured by the opposite. An example is treating fever by cooling. It is generally the antithesis of homeopathic medicine.

Galen was the last of the great ancient Greek physicians. The Roman Empire was established. It would shortly be Christianised, by Constantine the Great’s Edict of Milan in 313 AD.

 The final  triumph of science over superstition

Europe then entered the Dark Ages, with medical science suppressed until the second Age of Enlightenment. 

The English physician William Harvey (1578–1657) initiated a new era of medical investigations by his identification of the circulation of the blood.

Figure 23. William Harvey
Less well known is Harvey's important assertion that “witchcraft is a fallacy”, thus once again attempting to consign to history the notion of the supernatural cause of illness and death. This conclusion was reached after he was invited to attend the Pendle witch trials of 1633–34, set in a location just a few miles from where I live.

The triumph of science over superstition!

Figure 24. Pendle Hill and Clitheroe, Lancashire


  1. Surgeons have kept the title of Mr as they are proud of the fact that they were not, until the 19th century, qualified as Physicians. Instead, they were Barber/Surgeons. Both sides of the profession looked down on the other. I suppose that, unless one has a MD or PhD, one doesn't strictly have the right to call oneself a doctor. In most countries, the basic medical degree is a doctorate. When one considers the length of time of study, it would be fairer to call the basic MB a doctorate.

    1. In most countries the basic medical degree is MD, and then the research qualification would be PhD. There has been a suggestion to change the UK MB ChB / MB BS to MD. It would be sensible but nothing has happened.

  2. This was a thoroughly enjoyable read. Thank you!

  3. A very intersesting succinct synopsis of the history of Greek medicine David! Could not help a touch of nostalgia, as I read about the many Greek physicians who laid the foundations of medicine as a science combined with art and, often, a modicum of superstition and witchcraft! Although one of the first things I learned as a medical student was the saying "Non est medicina sine lingua Latina", it did not take me long to realize that the ancient Greeks probably made a greater contribution to medicine and medical terminology than the Romans!

  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

  5. Then again, in the event that you want to step far from customary therapeutic medications and spotlight rather on non-conventional and elective pharmaceutical (homeopathy, natural drug, needle therapy, and so on.) at that point search for an expert who has confirmation from one of the legitimate all encompassing solution proficient affiliations. Übersetzer für Medizin

  6. Buy diet online pills that is created and manufactured by a well known company; in addition, make sure that it is founded on research to ascertain its effectiveness

  7. Thanks a lot for sharing us about this update. Hope you will not get tired on making posts as informative as this. https://asbestoscancer.org

  8. We do not know all the side effects from long term use of these drugs. We do not really know how these drugs affect brain chemistry. natural remedy for PTSD

  9. There are actually a number of particulars like that to take into consideration. That could be a great point to deliver up. I offer the ideas above as common inspiration but clearly there are questions just like the one you bring up where the most important factor can be working in sincere good faith. I don?t know if best practices have emerged round issues like that, but I am positive that your job is clearly identified as a fair game. Each boys and girls feel the influence of only a second’s pleasure, for the remainder of their lives. ancient greek experiences

  10. It is likewise critical that you have utilized the vehicle for somewhere around a half year before delivery it to Germany. super deutschland

  11. The quintessence of Tao shrewdness in Chinese medicine is that "all things grow normally" or "one power hidden all."generic viagra That is to state, everything is the thing that they are intended to be: they appeared and after that rot for what they are.

  12. So how would we, as a country, break free of the hold the Health Care Industry has on our economy?buy tamoxifen 20 mg

  13. The issue is endeavoring to make sense of what to search for when you choose to buy a health supplement. viagra This article gives some broad exhortation to enable you to settle on an educated choice with regards to acquiring a dietary enhancement

  14. Regularly, these sites utilize their very own in-house doctors whose activity is to dissect a client's condition and endorse the proper medicine -sildenafil an invited help for individuals who discover visiting the nearby specialist extremely badly arranged, excessively exorbitant, or both.

  15. Joint agony will assume control over your life. It will meddle with the majority of your exercises.http://top-chiropractor-reviews-perth-western-australia.strikingly.com/

  16. Understudies additionally figure out how to sanitize instruments; counteract and control disease; and handle uncommon medications, arrangements, supplies, and hardware. Most bosses want to contract affirmed technologists.Ahiflower Ingredient supplier

  17. Try to eat the prescribed five products of the soil servings daily. It fluctuates the day by day diet with various hued foods grown from the ground and furthermore gives a wide scope of nutrients and minerals. Health List

  18. The MHRA in 2004 stated that Medicine Management was 'The clinical, cost effective and safe use of medicines to ensure that patients get the maximum benefit from the medicines they need, while minimising potential harm.'discounted pharmacy

  19. The medications are conveyed to the client in the security of his home. One can spare a great deal of time along these lines.Genotropin

  20. Very efficiently written information. It will be beneficial to anybody who utilizes it, including me. Keep up the good work. For sure i will check out more posts. This site seems to get a good amount of visitors. medication

  21. Recorded beneath are not many things you ought CBD vape pens to in a perfect world pay special mind to previously and keeping in mind that obtaining activity clothing.

  22. It is the type of medicine that our incredible extraordinary amazing guardians depended on before logical medicine became. Logical medicine appears to have kicked the more seasoned type of medicine off the beaten path.office visit cpt code

  23. Eating healthy and supplements rich nourishment, working out, taking adequate rest,Buy CBD Oil Online keeping away from admission of destructive substances are only couple of basic approaches to remain healthy and fit.

  24. Be that as it may, there are on occasion circumstances when the ordinary medicines don't work for us or just they can't mend the issue. At these conditions huge numbers of us choose to go with elective medicine.viagra

  25. You will find a plenty of items extraordinarily made and detailed though your health couldn't care less and individual fitness needs.Brotmanmedicalcenter

  26. At the same time, prescription weight loss pills are basically used in case of obesity with possible dangers to your health.keto pure method

  27. I think this is definitely an amazing project here. So much good will be coming from this project. The ideas and the work behind this will pay off so much. frec 3 syllabus

  28. We expected to utilize new laws and bits of knowledge to enable us to manage the harm once done. The main infringement of the laws of nature on Earth made the requirement for a characteristic arrangement of recuperating, one that would give us access to those optional laws that would decrease the harm brought about by infringement of the essential laws.comprar cytotec

  29. This paper briefly provides an overview of drug abuse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency responders. best rehab center in the us

  30. It was wondering if I could use this write-up on my other website, I will link it back to your website though.Great Thanks. superdrol for sale in usa

  31. I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post. Lost continent of Mu

  32. Medication's labels should be clear and easy to read. If the labels on the bottles are worn off, take the medication bottle to the pharmacy and ask for a new label.keto diet weight loss

  33. The most noteworthy increment in opening rates recorded for all out office space across Australia was for Adelaide CBD with a slight increment of 1.6 percent from 6.6 percent. pure CBD oil

  34. By and by, years after the fact, it became realized that hemp doesn't contain a sufficiently high centralization of cellulose to be a compelling paper substitute. CBD

  35. You can likewise ask a neighborhood dental school. Dental schools are in an incredible situation to know who the best dentists are in the region. Top Dentists in Carlsbad

  36. Alternative medicine does not follow the traditional science and research that current medicines undergo. Alternative medicine could also be termed complementary or traditional medicine or the therapies that can be integrated into current medicine.here

  37. Oil paint is a slow-drying medium made from linseed oil and pigments. Oil paints are a traditional medium used for painting subjects like landscapes, portraits and abstract pieces. Unlike acrylic paints, which are available in a wide range of colors from dull and earthy to almost neon, oil paints tend to be limited in their scope; to achieve the brightest colors, oils must be mixed. CBD store

  38. Alternative medicine is also known as traditional, naturopathic, natural or holistic medicine. Proponents of alternative medicine are not refuting the validity of discoveries in and the practical uses of conventional medicine, but are merely trying to put some things into perspective. last longer in bed

  39. Great job for publishing such a beneficial web site. Your web log isn’t only useful but it is additionally really creative too. Erections Pills Works

  40. The Tsitouras couple furnished them with carefully chosen antiques and the odd modern, design piece, and then, one by one, turned them into something like a private museum. We specialize in transfers from or to Santorini

  41. There are various remedies to manage high blood pressure. However, the content tackles herbal tinctures able to reducing blood pressure. Royal CBD oil

  42. Medicare Parts A and B both have deductible and coinsurance requirements. The deductibles for 2016 are $1288.00 per Benefit Period, for Part A. The Part B deductible is $166.00 per year. Private insurance is available to cover all or some of these out-of-pocket costs.earloop mask singapore

  43. When your doctor prescribes you a new medication, disclose the names of all the medicines you are currently taking, including all supplements, over-the-counter and prescription medications. State any allergies to any medication.CBD gummies

  44. Home wellbeing plans are typically observed by a specialist. Be that as it may, medical attendants and helpers complete the legitimate time of care in such plans. red light therapy devices

  45. Similarly as with numerous different callings there can be enormous contrasts in individuals who use hypnotherapy and who call themselves 'trance specialists.hypnotherapy

  46. The petite, orange-bloomed contact me-not looks as though it could never add up to anything as a weed, its underlying foundations are shallow, its stem is powerless and watery.Cannabis Seeds

  47. With concerns ascending in the clinical field as of late about coronary illness perils of a few physician endorsed meds, numerous individuals are searching for a sheltered choice to manage joint pain.Toe straightener

  48. Cannabinoids influence the body by appending themselves to various receptors. Some cannabinoids are delivered by the body and there are the CB1 and CB2 receptors. https://cbdreamers.com/best-cbd-oils

  49. it is believed that stones, gems, crystals and minerals help in the sleep. These have an effect on dreams, insomnia and nightmares. CBD for sleep

  50. you will get an overview of different types of medical errors made by health care practitioners. It will help you to determine that under what circumstances you can consider yourself a victim of medical malpractice. BLIS K12 & M18 ingredient supplier

  51. Many air ambulance offerings use small jets, along with Lear jets. But turboprop and twin engine airplanes can also be used quite effectively.cialis with dapoxetine

  52. Derived from Hemp or Marijuana, CBD includes no THC meaning that it does not get you "high" or "buzzed" in any way like Cannabis does.CBD Cream Benefits

  53. The cycle is increasingly more applied to both menswear and womenswear with the market moving towards washed-down appearances and gentler handles. Joy Organics

  54. Further, these herb-drug interactions could alter the efficacy and bioavailability of the prescribed medications. Adderall side effects

  55. I am very much pleased with the contents you have mentioned. I wanted to thank you for this great article. Harley Davidson Marlboro Man Jacket

  56. With each changing design in clinical idea, traditional medicine needs to throw away its currently antiquated conventionality and force the upgraded one, until it gets changed once more. see more

  57. Great information about wilderness for beginners giving the opportunity for new people.
    tony soprano leather jacket

  58. Find Herbal Medicine Schools in the United States and Canada. Herbal medicine schools instruct cheapest cbd gummies students in the essentials of herbalism and botanical medicine.

  59. "Expiry" should also be understood to occur once a supply of medications is no longer used appropriately for it's intended purpose. cbd gummies free shipping

  60. Depending on your career interest, successful completion of one or more alternative medicine courses can lead to professions in naturopathy, natural health, homeopathy, massage therapy and Oriental medicine - to list just a few. Alternative medicine courses in natural health, for example, can help students achieve required education to become natural health consultants, educators or natural health technicians. modafinil senza ricetta

  61. The Internet has made shopping for everything easy and convenient. There are stores online for just about everything and one of the best places to shop for everyday items is at an Online Pharmacy. buy zopiclone

  62. Social Media, however, can be used in many ways other than engaging with patients online. This Philips Healthcare LinkedIn case study is a great example of a healthcare organization who used LinkedIn to establish “thought leadership” and expertise in their respective field of healthcare and lighting. Philips created the Innovation in Health LinkedIn group to create discussions and build their credibility by directly connecting with their target audience – medical, healthcare, and technology professionals. 9-5 medical careers

  63. Diet supplement it is beneficial to loose weight. This diet supplement is made of the natural Herb called as hoodia gordonii which grows in South Africa Kalahari deserts. health lifestyle blog

  64. Much the same as your own storeroom, medicine cupboards can be a serious wreck some of the time, particularly in the event that you have heaps of medicines put away. what temperature does cbd vaporize at

  65. Our the purpose is to share the reviews about the latest Jackets,Coats and Vests also share the related Movies,Gaming, Casual,Faux Leather and Leather materials available Black Label Society Vest

  66. While this cycle may appear to be long, it pays off with perhaps the most compensating vocations in pharmacy. Buy placidyl online

  67. Nice Blog !
    Here We are Specialist in Manufacturing of Movies, Gaming, Casual, Faux Leather Jackets, Coats And Vests See Tom Hardy Shearling Jacket

  68. Very interesting information, worth recommending. However, I recommend this: custom patches

  69. It is especially decent, though look into the tips during this home address. custom patches

  70. Present day medicine isn't intended to make individuals solid; it is intended to make and keep individuals debilitated. nr powder manufacturer

  71. I’d should check with you here. Which is not something I usually do! I take pleasure in studying a publish that may make people think. Also, thanks for permitting me to remark!online health store

  72. This was an extremely wonderful post. Thanks for providing this info. Usmle Step 2

  73. In the event that you make next to zero such ventures, your wellbeing will rely upon possibility, hereditary qualities, the maturing cycle and the idealness of the nature of clinical consideration you get. CBD Stores

  74. Very useful post. This is my first time i visit here. I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially its discussion. Really its great article. Keep it up. sức khỏe và sắc đẹp

  75. I haven't seen this type of article and containing unique content which is really very helpful. I am giving this service Rank Your Website - Off Page SEO in low price.

  76. The post is written in very a good manner and it contains many useful information for me. queens cannabis dispensary

  77. I might suggest solely beneficial in addition to trusted facts, and so find it: how many grams in a teaspoon of kratom powder

  78. Much appreciated for sharing this data. I truly like your web journal post exceptionally much. You have got truly shared an instructive and curiously web journal post with individuals. Knee pillow

  79. I am always searching online for storys that can accommodate me. There is obviously a multiple to understand about this. I feel you made few salubrious points in Attributes moreover. Detain busy, awesome career! Express Smoke Shop

  80. This is a great article thanks for sharing this informative information. I will visit your blog regularly for some latest post. I will visit your blog regularly for Some latest post. privacy policy

  81. You might be one of those individuals out there who is confronting a quandary with regards to getting sorted out medicines appropriately in the medicine bureau. Now and again, when you have heaps of medicines previously put away, it gets more enthusiastically to discover the medicine you are searching for when vital. https://levitra-original.cz/